April 15, 2016 § 2 Comments
Two years ago I had a work trip to Leuven. It was brutally short and I was there for a grand total of 16 hours, of which approximately seven were spent sleeping. The only sightseeing I got to do was a very abbreviated wander through the Begijnhof. Even that tiny taste made me resolve to go back and explore it properly. A month ago, I got my chance: last year my friends M and M moved from Brussels to Leuven. When I went to visit them, the Begijnhof was at the top of my list… and this time I had my camera. I used turquoise film again (blue and moody Belgian cityscapes just seem made for each other, William Degouve de Nuncques discovered that a long time ago) but it behaved very differently to the roll I shot in Kraków: this time the sky was overcast so no blazing, almost metallic yellows. Just blue, blue, blue.
Leuven’s begijnhof (French: béguinage) is one of several that dot Belgium and the Netherlands. They originated in the 12th century as communities of béguines: unmarried women who devoted themselves to prayer and good works but who weren’t actually nuns, but more like a lay sisterhood – they didn’t take vows and could return to the world if and when they chose. The begijnhof isn’t a monastery, more a city within a city, not cut off from the outside world but still very obviously separate, running to its own rules and its own time.
The last of the Leuven béguines died in 1988 (!) but the begijnhof is still inhabited: it’s now owned (like seemingly everything else in Leuven) by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and the houses are now filled with professors and visiting fellows. Even so, it feels strangely deserted – M, M and I were almost the only pedestrians on the streets, and at no point did we see anyone enter or leave any of the houses. It was like wandering around an empty film set that the actors had left ages ago.
There were signs of human presence – bikes leaning against walls, pots of flowers on the windowsills – but it was easy to imagine ourselves in a ghost town. A little town where time stood still.
(Technical specs: Diana F+ camera, standard lens, Lomochrome Turquoise XR 100-400 film)
April 7, 2016 § 2 Comments
No, Dreams on Paper isn’t dead. It was merely hibernating. And what better way to come out of hibernation than with some weird, woozy, dreamy flower photographs?
I shot this roll (my second and last very expired roll of Fuji Velvia slide film) six weeks ago at Kew. The first spring bulbs – snowdrop, crocus, daffodil – were out and it seemed a fitting place to take my first photographs of the year (in fact, my Diana’s first outing since Kraków). Only I decided to be a bit perverse, and on top of the unpredictability of expired film, I piled a totally unsuitable lens choice – a super-wide angle lens, when I was planning to shoot mostly in close-up.
Oh yeah, and the film didn’t wind as tightly as it should have. Cue massive light leakage.
But you know what? I rather like how they turned out anyway. Sometimes you just have to bow to the caprices of Lady Diana.
This also seems like a good place to say that, almost four and a half (!!) years on, the focus of Dreams of Paper is going to be a little different. If you’ve been a follower (thank you!) you’ll undoubtedly have noticed over the last year or so that my posts have gotten sparser and have been more and more photographs and fewer words. I haven’t stopped writing; it’s just that my writing energies are currently directed elsewhere, to another project that I hope someday I’ll be able to share. So for the foreseeable future, this is primarily going to be the place I put my photos. (I’m not going to change the name, since it still fits.) I hope you’ll come along with me for this new chapter…
(Technical specs: Diana F+ camera, Fuji Velvia 50 slide film (expired; cross-processed), 38 mm super-wide angle lens)
December 1, 2015 § 3 Comments
So much has been written about Kraków’s fairy-tale beauty, and about how the Old Town, particularly the Rynek, resembles a stage set. But if you visit at the height of tourist season, it’s hard to photograph, much less walk around, without bumping into crowds.
There’s a simple solution – take advantage of the long August days and get up with the sunrise. This is the roll I shot early in the morning of my last day in Kraków, on and around the Rynek, before the city was fully awake. I was experimenting with a new film – Lomochrome Turquoise, to be precise. I had no idea what colour effects would come into play, but let’s just say this is probably not the last time I’ll use it… it turned out to be perfect for capturing the silence and emptiness and delicate melancholy of Kraków in the early hours.
(Technical specs: Diana F+ camera, standard lens, Lomochrome Turquoise XR 100-400 film)
November 28, 2015 § 6 Comments
If you initially mistook the building in the photo above for the Vienna Secession, don’t feel too bad – it’s Kraków’s very own Secession, deliberately modelled on the Viennese one. One of the reasons I was so keen to visit Kraków was its art – well, a very particular strand of it. Some of the most marvellous and distinctive Symbolist art came out of Poland, the work of a group of young artists, designers and writers who banded together under the name Młoda Polska (Young Poland). Almost all of it has remained in Poland, and as a consequence (and, no doubt, thanks to the language barrier and the decades of the Iron Curtain), it’s shamefully little known outside its own country. I only really discovered it in the last year or so, and I’ve been a student of Symbolism for close to 15 (!) years now, so, appetite whetted by the few English-language books I was able to get my hands on, I wanted to see the real thing.
If you want to get acquainted with Młoda Polska, you can’t really do better than visit Kraków, which was its heart and nerve centre… although, fortunately for the rest of Poland but unfortunately for me, the National Museum in Warsaw also has a very important collection of it, which happens to include my absolute favourite painting, Józef Mehoffer’s The Strange Garden…
(If, like me, you love this painting but are going to Kraków rather than Warsaw, please do not do as I did and live under the delusional hope that it will for some reason be on special loan to one of the museums in Kraków while you’re there. You will just be frustrated and disappointed. Bite the bullet and buy a train ticket to Warsaw instead. Or plan a future trip…)
So, without further ado, here is my little guide to Symbolist Kraków. Reckon on it taking three days to see everything if you want to do it at a civilised pace, especially as a couple of things (namely Wawel Cathedral) are part of larger monuments or museums.
You’re going to need fuel for your Symbolist odyssey, so where better to start than at Jama Michalika (Michalik’s Den), the Młoda Polska cafe to end all others? The interior, which was decorated by many of the artists who hung out there, is mind-blowing. However, I’m going to be heretical and suggest that you don’t actually eat breakfast there. I’ve heard the food is overpriced and not great, and I skipped it in favour of a coffee which was also… rather underwhelming, which made me glad I hadn’t ordered breakfast. So eat breakfast at your hotel, or grab an obwarzanek (Kraków’s answer to the bagel) from a cart on the way there. Order your lacklustre coffee and gawk at your surroundings while you sip. Then go. You’ve got a lot to see…
The National Museum (main building) is the place to start, particularly if you’re a newcomer to all things Młoda Polska. The collection is on the top floor, with major works by all the big names – Jacek Malczewski, Józef Mehoffer, Stanisław Wyspiański, Wojciech Weiss, Olga Boznańska, Józef Pankiewicz (whose breathtaking nocturnes give William Degouve de Nuncques a serious run for his money) and a whole host of artists I’d not heard of before but want to learn more about. However, if you want to see more of Mehoffer and Wyspiański, you’ll need to venture beyond the museum walls…
…to, first of all, the Mehoffer House, a branch of the National Museum in the house where Mehoffer spent the last fourteen years of his life. It’s still furnished more or less as it was in his day, packed with his paintings (including a couple of small studies for The Strange Garden) and, best of all, some of his stained glass (Mehoffer and Wyspiański, as well as being brilliant painters, were two of Poland’s leading stained glass designers, in much the same way Edward Burne-Jones was in England):
The garden is also worth a prolonged wander (and a stop for coffee, which is better than what you’ll find at Jama Michalika), although sadly (or perhaps fortunately) you probably won’t encounter a giant golden dragonfly there.
(Also in the same street is Cukiernia Michalek, a bakery which sells excellent makowiec. Just saying.)
Next stop – plac Szczepański. Not only can you see the gorgeous Pałac Sztuki (whether you venture inside is up to you – it still hosts temporary exhibitions, so it’ll depend on what’s on), but there’s another excellent branch of the National Museum on the other side of the square. It was once the Wyspiański Museum, and I’m a bit sad that it no longer is, because Wyspiański was a fascinating figure and a true polymath – artist, designer of furniture and stained glass, poet, playwright (his play Wesele [The Wedding] is still a fixture of the Polish theatrical repertoire) – but it’s now something more expansive and all-embracing, the Feliks Jasienski Szołayski House. Jasienski was an art historian, critic, aesthete and collector and Młoda Polska’s most important advocate. The museum houses his massive collection, which ranges from Młoda Polska to contemporary French art to Japanese art (although most of the latter is across town in another great museum, the Manggha Museum of Japanese Art and Technology), and was hosting two big and very worthwhile exhibitions when I visited – one on Jasienski’s collection, the other on nineteenth-century French prints. The latter is on until 3 January and the former until next July, so catch them if you can!
Now the hunt for all things Młoda Polska becomes an extended chase after stained glass. First stop – the Wyspiański Pavilion just south of the Rynek. This strange modern building’s main raison d’être is a tourist information centre, but it also contains three amazing windows – posthumous realisations of Wyspiański’s rejected designs for windows for Wawel Cathedral. The windows depict Poland’s patron saint and two greatest monarchs – Kazimierz the Great, St Stanisław and Henry the Pious – as skeletal spectres, which proved a bit too much for the cathedral authorities, who handed the commission to Mehoffer instead.
Speaking of which, you’d do well to head over to Wawel – and then to the Mariacki Church.
Infuriatingly, none of the maps or audioguides for either church point you to any Młoda Polska work (though they’re very eager to tell you about Veit Stoss), so you’ll have to keep a sharp eye out. Mehoffer, Wyspiański and colleagues contributed stunning windows and murals to both churches, so go slowly, look carefully and you’ll be richly rewarded.
But if you want a real Wyspiański extravaganza, head for the Basilica of St Francis. The thirteenth-century basilica was gutted by fire in 1850. Forty-five years later, Wyspiański was commissioned to redecorate it – completely. All the windows and murals are his work; most of them feature gorgeously elaborate floral motifs but the most famous, deservedly, is the swirling drama of God the Father at the west end of the nave.
The final stop on the Młoda Polska tour is a little sneaky, in that it’s inside a building not technically open to the public. The Medical Society House – which is just what it says on the tin and is tucked away on a small street about ten minutes’ walk from the centre of Kraków – contains another stunning set of windows by Wyspiański…
Ring the bell, ask the porter if you can see the windows (I’m not entirely sure what the correct Polish phrase is, but a garbled ‘Proszę, witraże Wyspiańskiego?’ got me waved in) and prepare to be amazed.
You’d have to go a very long way indeed to see anything else like it.
October 30, 2015 § 3 Comments
Whenever I told anyone I was going to Poland for my summer holiday, I tended to get two reactions: people who had been told me that I’d made an excellent choice, that Kraków was lovely, etc.; people who hadn’t would give me an odd look and say dubiously, ‘oh, that’s… brave/adventurous/different.’ (I guess the image of it as a grey, joyless Communist hellhole is more persistent than I thought.) But nearly everyone, regardless of whether they’d visited or not, inevitably had the same question: are you going to visit Auschwitz?
My answer was a defiant, resounding no. For three reasons, the chief being that I’m a great big coward. The other two being that a. I’ve heard from everyone I know who has visited that it irrevocably colours the rest of your trip, and I didn’t want this to be the case on my first visit to Poland and b. I was travelling alone. I couldn’t imagine enduring that visit without having someone to talk to about it afterwards. Or a shoulder to cry on.
(Even if I had wanted to go, the numerous tour operators dotted around Kraków advertising trips to Auschwitz and to the Wieliczka Salt Mine as if the two were somehow equivalent chilled me to the bone.)
The compromise was that I would visit the old Jewish neighbourhood, Kazimierz, and Oskar Schindler’s factory across the river in Podgorze, which has recently been turned into a museum. So the morning of my second day in Kraków, I set out.
Kazimierz was once an island surrounded by an arm of the Vistula and, although it was filled in in the nineteenth century, it still feels rather separate from the old city. It’s mid-morning by the time I turn off the main boulevard into Kazimierz and the streets are already suntraps, baking in heat that promises to get worse. There are few other pedestrians apart from tourists; anyone with any sense who isn’t at work is hanging out in one of the scores of cafés.
Kazimierz is beautiful in a humbler way than the fairy-tale Stare Miasto: unmistakably old, battered by time, scorched by sun. Most of the buildings lining the main thoroughfares now contain trendy cafés and shops. If you didn’t know better, you’d never guess that this was once one of the biggest Jewish neighbourhoods in Poland. You could easily be in Hackney or Brooklyn or – perhaps the most pertinent comparison – the Marais.
My first stop, after an hour or so of aimless flânerie, is the Old Synagogue, which is now a museum, no longer used for worship. The exhibits chart the history of Kazimierz and of Kraków’s Jewish community up until the Second World War. Many of them – prayer books, candlesticks, Torah crowns – have a tragically cobbled-together feel, and the wall texts make no bones about that – they’re what was left after the destruction.
By the time I emerge, it’s later than I thought, so I head straight over the river to Podgorze, past buildings and courtyards that feature, according to my guidebook, in Schindler’s List – I wouldn’t have known otherwise, as I’ve never seen it. (My parents deemed me too young to see it when it came out [I was fourteen; were they being overprotective? Answers on a postcard…], and for some reason or another, I’ve never got round to watching it since.)
Apart from the green banks of the river and the splendid rusty towers of a new museum dedicated to the avant-garde director Tadeusz Kantor, Podgorze looks drab and anonymous; it could be a gradually gentrifying working-class industrial suburb anywhere in Europe. There’s no sign that it once contained the ghetto in which the Nazis imprisoned the Jews of Kazimierz on the way to the labour camp of Plaszów or worse – apart from a square now dedicated to ‘the martyrs of the ghetto’, its vast expanse scattered with sculptures of outsize overturned chairs, symbolic of the plunder and destruction of the Jews’ possessions.
Schindler’s factory is down a couple of back streets and under a railroad bridge. It still looks like, well, a factory (although it now also has a contemporary art museum as a neighbour). I’ll admit to no small amount of trepidation as I go in, flash my ICOM card at the ticket desk, and enter the museum.
I didn’t take any photos inside. There are no signs forbidding it, but I couldn’t bring myself to – neither, it seems, could any of my fellow visitors (this might be the only museum on earth immune to the plague of selfies). What I can say is that it is one of the most compelling and thoughtfully curated museums I have ever visited. It plunges you into the darkness and horror of the Nazi occupation, the ghetto and Plaszów without ever straying toward the cheap and sensationalistic. I am, at many points, really glad I didn’t go to Auschwitz: this is about all I can take.
Wisely, perhaps, the museum saves the few points of light in the darkness for the end – the stories of the citizens of Kraków who risked their lives to protect the Jews. Schindler takes pride of place for obvious reasons, and they’ve recreated his office down to the last detail, but there’s little insight into what made this man, who was no saint in either public or private life and, by all accounts, as venal as they came, put his business and life on the line to rescue more than a thousand Jews. Perhaps no one will ever really know.
By the time I emerge, nearly three hours later, into the sun, I feel battered, numb. I walk back along the river to Kazimierz in a daze. The iced coffee I order in a café beside the Little Father Bernard footbridge suddenly seems obscenely luxurious.
There are still several synagogues to visit. Like the Old Synagogue, most of them are no longer in use. The High Synagogue is now a cultural centre with an excellent bookshop on the ground floor. The Remu’h Synagogue used to be the second largest and second most splendid after the Old, but it is now a sad ruin – supposedly currently under restoration, but the ladders, scaffolding and plastic sheeting look as if they haven’t been touched in a while.
I end up going to a turn around the cemetery instead. It’s quiet and only slightly overgrown, most of the thin upright stones so worn by weather and time they’re illegible. There’s a memorial made of broken stones set into one of the walls. How many more broken stones do they represent?
The last synagogue on my list is the Isaac Synagogue. I am not sure I can face another ruin or empty shell, but I press on. As I round the corner, I notice groups of young Hassidim heading in the same direction, and I realise I’ve been seeing small knots of them all around Kazimierz today. When I ask the man at the front desk for a ticket, he shakes his head.
‘You can’t come in now. There’s a service.’
I glance through the open door into the sanctuary and see a sea of black coats and hats, hear the muted buzz of conversation: the service hasn’t started yet, they must be waiting for the rabbi. Any disappointment I might have felt melts away. It’s still being used! After everything I’ve seen today, this feels like a victory. Small, but no less real.
My last stop is the New Cemetery, which came into use at the turn of the century when the Remu’h cemetery reached capacity, cut off from Kazimierz by railroad tracks. A graveyard might seem an odd place to go for solace on a day like this, but that is exactly what it proves to be. As I wander along under heavy green shadows, eyes skimming the headstones, I notice something unexpected and cheering.
A remarkable number of death dates are post-1945.
The worshippers in the Isaac Synagogue might be recent arrivals to Kraków. The cemetery seems to offer proof that Kraków’s Jewish community was never completely obliterated.
I walk back to Kazimierz and the restaurants ringing the main square are setting up for the evening. I can’t help thinking of the wry but rather accurate joke that all Jewish holidays can be summed up in the following three sentences:
They tried to kill us. They failed. Let’s eat.
It doesn’t sound like bad advice right now. I choose a restaurant called the Klezmer Hois, go in and order chłodnik and herring, Lithuanian style. Halfway through the first course a klezmer band starts its set. Many of the melodies are familiar from my childhood, but now a particular quality of the music strikes me as never before: at its most wildly joyous, it still sounds mournful; at its most sorrowful, it still contains the germ of a dance.
I walk back to the Old Town and out of a Kazimierz that is coming back to life – and perhaps never entirely died – past another synagogue recently brought back into use, my head still wrapped in the bitter-sweetness of the music.
October 10, 2015 § Leave a comment
As foundation legends go, Kraków has one of the best: it’s said to be built on the back of a dragon. The dragon’s lair was conveniently located in a cave at the foot of the Wawel Hill, which happened to have been an ideal location for building a castle, and the rest is history.
So – yes, after some frustration and unexpected obstacles, I finally made it to Kraków at the end of August. It was a city I’d wanted to visit for years, given an extra layer of meaning because the trip represented the first time I’d ever visited a country from which my family originally came (one of my paternal great-grandfathers was born and raised in Radom, although he left as a young man and I very much doubt I have any relations left there).
Unfortunately, Polish ancestry doesn’t guarantee any facility with the language and my initial encounter with it was… humbling, to say the least. It is a beautiful, melodious language but for someone whose experience of foreign tongues falls neatly into Romance and Germanic, there’s precious little familiar ground. And that’s without reckoning with all those terrifying, endless rows of consonants. I once heard a humorous explanation of why Welsh and Hawaiian are the way they are: a migrating tribe before the dawn of time had to bail out their boats in the middle of an Atlantic storm, and all the consonants fell out and floated to Wales, with the vowels washing up in Hawaii. I suspect something similar happened on the Baltic… all the consonants ended up in Poland, the vowels, in Finland.
Thankfully, Kraków is a tremendously hospitable city, whether or not you can speak the language, and my shoddy Polish proved no obstacle at all to enjoying it.
The Rynek Glowny (main market square) and the Wawel Hill (site of the castle and cathedral) are without a doubt the most recognisable, best known and most heavily touristed places in Kraków. I’m not really sure the world needs more photos of them. But like virtually every visitor to Kraków, I fell prey to their beauty and couldn’t stop snapping…
Adam Mickiewicz never visited Kraków (poor man!) but he ended up with the best spot in town – in front of the Sukiennice (Cloth Hall), facing the Mariacki Church. On second thought, it might not be the best. He may be beloved of Poles and Pan Tadeusz is on school syllabi the length of the land, but unfortunately his statue is also beloved of pigeons…
The upper terrace of the Sukiennice offers the best views of the Rynek – much better than you’ll get on the ground. But as well as looking down, you’d do well to look up.
These grotesques are the work of Santi Gucci, one of a number of Italian artists and architects who worked in Kraków during the Renaissance. They ornament the entire perimetre of the Sukiennice’s roof, no two alike.
Speaking of Italy, you’d be forgiven for thinking you were there… but no, that’s the inner courtyard of Wawel Castle. Designed by Italian architects, but adapted to the Polish climate – hence the height of the upper storey and the pitch of the roof, which you’d never come across in Tuscany.
I have to admit to preferring the cathedral, though. (But all I came away with was exterior shots – no photography permitted inside, which was infuriating as the interior contains sculpture by Veit Stoss and windows by several Polish Symbolists – of the latter, more in a future post.)
There’s one charming detail on the exterior that I couldn’t resist, though: the gutter spouts are all shaped like dragon’s heads.
Wherever you go in Kraków, you’re never far from a dragon.
September 5, 2015 § 4 Comments
Remember when I shot a roll of black & white film at St Dunstan in the East back in February and said I’d go back in the summer and do it again in colour?
Chose promise, chose due.*
I made it back a few weeks ago, while I was on holiday and had the luxury of going in the middle of a hot, sunny weekday… this time with my first ever roll of Lomochrome Purple. Here are the results.
*A promise is a debt.
(Technical specs: Diana F+ camera, Lomochrome Purple 100-400 film, standard lens)